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Posted: 09 Nov 2013 05:55 PM PST



This chapter provides the background of the study that describes the reason why the writer intends to conduct this study. First, the reasons or background of the study, problem of the study, and significance of the study are formulated. Next, the scope and limitation of the study is presented. The last part is the definition of the key terms.

A. Background of the Study
Generally, language is a system of arbitrary conventionalized vocal, written, gesture symbols that permit members of a given community to communicate intelligibly with each other. There are many languages in the world that used to communicate each other such as Chinese, Russian, Spanish, French, German, Arabic, English and etc. English is the important one, as international language, means that people around the world use it for communication each other in the daily life for relationship of business, trade, education and etc.
In Indonesian schools, thus, English, for the English department students is not a new subject, since English has been given when they were studying English in their junior high schools level. It is as one of main lesson that examined in UAN (Ujian Akhir Nasional). Based on the brief description of the English position, we know that English is very important to learn.
Talk about Language, it can not remove with teaching and learning. According to the 1994 curriculum, teach language, especially English. It magnifies on the development of four areas influencing the ability in mastering English as well. They are : reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Speaking and writing are productive skills, while reading and listening are the receptive skills. Therefore, in this thesis, the writer would like to discuss further more about one important aspect of language, speak. Speaking is the ability to express opinions, ideas, or thought orally; it consists of producing systematic verbal utterance to convey meaning in order to be understood by the people we are speaking with.
We know that speaking is included all aspects of language like explain before, it is the most important to master it. It is also considered as the most difficult aspect and as primary skill. This opinion can be proved by the fact that almost speakers can orally use the language to carry out their daily activities and to communicate in their life experiences.
In the process of teaching and learning, teachers often find situations when students are not motivated because they get bored, if the students are bored or emotionally upset they will find it difficult to concentrate and participate in the classroom activity. Beside that, according to the writer experience that the students also not confidence to speak English because they are not usual to do it and they are not very good at English and they know about it. They do not know many English words or, even if they remember some words they have problems with pronunciation, so do not want to speak, because they are shy to produce their language in front of the classroom.
In other way, part of the techniques of teaching and learning are still monotones (teacher only explain the material of the lesson and then give student some assignment), it causes the students are unless motivated to speak English. Actually, there are many methods that used by the teacher in English's teaching and learning in order to reach the goal, the student can speak English fluently such as; using cartoon movies, pictures, jigsaws, games and etc. But, in the study, the writer would like to use song as media teaching and learning. She thinks that songs are interesting way to teach English, especially in speaking class. Neurologists have found that musical and language processing occur in the same area of the brain, and there appear to be parallels in how musical and linguistic syntax are processed.
Noorman stated that no man can live without art and music is a part of it. That means, music is an important thing in human's life. And song is a part of music. It is defined as a sort piece of music that has words or musical words that use words on it which is called lyrics. It is human way in expressing their passion which is a part of music. It is a part of people collective history and also every day lives. People can express something that they feel by music. It has been received in all level people, such as; children, adult, old, or rich and poor, all of them can enjoy music. Noorman added that is considered as relaxing, they feel a little more comfortable in the class, music lovers suffer less from stress and high blood pressure than people who do not enjoy music.
Bertrand said (as cited by Ika) that songs makes the lesson more communicate, livelier to be motivated and one way to motivating them is by means songs. It is expected that song can be used as attractive in teaching English in order to the students will not get bored. Hancock said (as cited by Dessy) There are two advantages by using song in teaching English. First is to motivation. When songs are used in teaching learning process it is enjoyable. So the students are more motivated to learn English. Second is memorable. Songs have melodies that make to words or sentences easy to remember or memorize. A sentence without melody is much less memorable than the some sentence with melody. Song can be used to give students a break from the teachers they hear everyday which enable then to have a closer and stronger relationship with the teacher. Therefore, using songs material in the classroom activity can attract the student's interest and arouse the student's motivation in learning English.
In the other opinion, said that for two last decades, EFL (English as foreign language) methodology has been actively considering the possibility of using music and song in the class. Songs can be effectively used in an intermediate class for the purpose of teaching speaking to prospective EFL teachers. There are main reasons supported this idea. First, as a cultural phenomenon, songs can introduce students to the musical and cultural patterns typical for the target language community. Second, songs belong to a synthetic genre, which includes both lyrics, music and these two constituents may be used as a good incentive for speaking English in the class. Kisito said that English songs can be used for a wide variety of ESL learning and teaching activities. In speaking class, they can start discussions on a topic or even become the centre of debate. This is especially true of songs that develop a particular theme. Nevertheless, songs have their own identities such as it is convey a lower amount of information, have more redundancy and a personal quality. According to Wang B, songs present opportunities for developing automatic which is the main cognitive reason for using songs in the classroom. It means that automatic as "a component of language fluency which involves both knowing what to say and producing language rapidly without pauses". Therefore, songs can help automatic the language development process.

B. Problem of Study
From the background of the study above, the writer states the problems as follows : 
1. How is the application of using song at MAN X ?
2. How is the effect of using song on students' speaking ability at MAN X ?

C. Objectives
In line with the problem of the study above, the writer states the objectives of the study such as : 
1. Describing the applications of using English songs at MAN X
2. Describing the effect of using song on students' speaking ability at MAN X.

D. Significance of the Study
Looking at the objectives above, this study is trying to develop the instructional practices at IPA study program of Man X by developing the student's speaking ability by using songs. The results of the study later are expected to : 
1. Give contribution to the development of English teaching, especially to the development of instruction.
2. Provide English teachers with the appropriate procedure to developing the student's speaking ability by using song,
3. Give the students experience in learning English by song.


Posted: 09 Nov 2013 05:52 PM PST



This chapter is divided into seven subsections. They are background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic, statement of problems, objectives of the study, hypothesis, significance of the study, and outline of the report.

A. Background of the Study
The globalization era that demands man power with sufficient competency and professionalism has made Vocational High School so important. This phenomenon is reflected in that many students leaving Junior High Schools enter Vocational Schools.
It goes without saying that Vocational High School has some special qualities. Firstly, the alumni that leave from this institution could meet the job requirements in industry or company because they have certificate of Uji Kemampuan Kompetensi. With this certificate they would have a chance to get a job easily. Secondly, the alumni could continue their study if they are qualified; adjusted to their vocations.
Hence, the teaching and learning process in Vocational High School needs special techniques in order to achieve the necessary competencies for the students. That demand increases when there is free market in this era that makes manpower exchange takes place rapidly. So that, the students need to master the subjects and skills suitable with their vocations. They also have to be good in English as an international language, which also used both in industry and business nowadays.
However, according to my observation and interview before doing this final project, the English subject in Vocational High School is still conventional, monotonous and boring for the students. The teachers' successful orientation is still how to deliver all materials from the occupied literature (Suyatno, 2004 : 2). It potentially becomes one of the problems for them to reach the goal of the learning process.
Moreover, the situation becomes worse when the teachers rarely update the necessary skills in teaching according to the education progress. They have a drawback to evolve teaching techniques and strategies. The result is teaching and learning process operated in an old way that generates alumni without any sufficient competences.
Another cause is the very limited chance for the teachers to join in seminar, discussion, and training. It makes instructional processes become less innovative. This condition is usually complained especially by those who teach in remote areas.
The phenomena above are contrary to the spirit of the new curriculum (KTSP) which suggests that teachers should be able to enhance their teaching strategies for the sake of the student's competence development (KTSP 2007) (
Beside the above demand of the curriculum, the teacher's techniques and the students' learning styles should be in line. Teaching and learning process should be able to accommodate the different and unique characteristics of the students.
Based on the above arguments, simulation would be an effective technique to solve those problems for Vocational High School. This technique would give supporting environment for the students to elaborate themselves with their own learning styles. I focused on improving students' speaking skill for Vocational High School. Here, the subject of my study will be THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING SIMULATION IN IMPROVING STUDENTS' SPEAKING SKILL FOR VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL.

B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic
There are some reasons in choosing this topic. The first one is because the topic has not been examined yet by many researchers. Most of the them investigated the area of teaching and learning process in Junior or Senior High School in the terms of methods, strategy, and the interaction among the students or between teacher and students in the English class. There are still a few who conducted researches about teaching and learning techniques, especially simulation, for Vocational High School.
The second one is the topic will promise a valuable contribution for English teaching and learning process especially for Vocational High School that is being improved constantly by the government. The simulation technique adapts the students' learning styles and also uses Contextual Teaching and Learning that is needed in vocational classes as demanded by the curriculum. So that, this technique would be an alternative solution for education problem.
The third, the topic would be useful for language development because the simulation technique concerns on speaking skill. Therefore, by analyzing this matter, I hope that the second language learner could get knowledge and information in using English through simulation. This technique uses English as a means of communication not merely studying the language itself.
The last one is the topic gives an advantage for the students in improving their speaking skill and elaborating their learning styles. All the teaching and learning processes held in the context of situation according to the students' vocations. It would give much information for them in using English as the means of communication on their fields.

C. Statement of Problems
The problems that are discussed in this study are : 
1. How is the speaking test achievement for students taught using simulation technique ?
2. How is the speaking test achievement for students taught without using simulation technique ?
3. Is there any significant difference in students' speaking test achievement between those taught by using simulation technique and those taught without using simulation technique ?

D. Objectives of the Study
The purposes of this study are : 
1. to find out the speaking test achievement for students taught using simulation technique
2. to find out the speaking test achievement for students taught without using simulation technique
3. to find out whether there is significant difference in students' speaking test achievement between those taught by using simulation technique and those taught without using simulation technique.


Posted: 09 Nov 2013 05:48 PM PST



This research is intended to investigate the students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension in a junior high school. This chapter illustrates the background of the study, the research problems, and the purposes of the study. This chapter also includes the significance of the study, and the hypothesis. Moreover, this chapter also presents the research method and organization of the thesis.

A. Background of the Study
Reading is an essential skill for English as second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) learners; and for many, reading is the most important skill to master (Anderson, 1999). Anderson also states that with good reading skills, ESL/EFL readers will make great progress and attain great development in all academic areas (1999 : 21).
In a junior high school in Indonesia, reading skill is a first priority. The goal of reading in Indonesia English curriculum is to make the students comprehend what they read, and enhance students' oral and written communication ability (SMP-SBI curriculum 2007 the third grade of a junior high school). Further, SMP-SBI curriculum 2007 the third grade of a junior high school clarifies that the communication in this case is the ability to understand and to express the feeling, thought and information, to develop science, culture and technology (Depdiknas, 2007). It is also stated that standard competence of reading is to understand a meaning of procedural, report, explanatory written text or short essay, narrative, and news items, in order that students are able to communicate in daily and academic context.
In the last decade, many reading experts have investigated English reading strategies in order to solve the reading problems. Reading strategies are considered one of the fundamental factors that promote students' comprehension improvement in reading. Furthermore, reading strategy "is the foundation of students' self-regulated reading" (Syafrizal, 2000 : 4). A motivated and self-regulated reader will encourage himself to set his own planning in determining his reading strategies which contribute a great deal of success to his reading comprehension (Wenden, 1987 : 11).
Based on the description above, it can be said that reading strategies play an important role in reading English texts, especially in a junior high school. In line with this, the present study focuses on the investigation of students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension, a case study at a junior high school.

B. Research Problems
The study is aimed at investigating the junior high school students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension. Specifically, this study investigates the following questions : 
1. What reading strategies are used by the third grade students of the junior high school ?
2. Is there any correlation between the students' reading strategies and their reading comprehensions ?

C. Purposes of the Study
The study was conducted in order to : 
1. discover the reading strategies used by third grade students of the junior high school.
2. find the correlation between the students' reading strategies and their reading comprehensions

D. Significance of the Study
This study is intended to find the correlation between the junior high school students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension. Hopefully, the study will be valuable for teachers and students, for improving the teaching learning process. By knowing the students' reading strategies and their reading comprehension, the teachers could also select and design the appropriate teaching materials and techniques. Besides, by identifying reading and its strategies, it could be expected that some valuable findings could be implemented in the process of reading in order to make reading course better. Moreover, this study could also become an empirical study over viewing classroom learning activities in Competence-Based Curriculum. It could be an insight to teaching and learning activities in KTSP context. Furthermore, it can be a bridge for the students to encourage them to improve their reading comprehension by using reading strategies.
In addition, this study can be valuable for researcher because the result of the study provides some informative input to conduct another investigation in the same field in different contexts.


Posted: 09 Nov 2013 05:46 PM PST



This chapter contains a brief explanation of the introduction. It consists of background, research questions, the scope of the research, aims of the research, hypothesis, research methodology, clarification of key terms, and organization of the paper. 

A. Background
In the structure of curriculum program in Junior high school, English is one of the most important subjects for students in the seventh grade until nine grades by having about four hours lesson every week. English has been identified as the most important parameter in the curriculum development that should be mastered by Indonesian students. It means that students in the junior high school have three years opportunity to learn English and they are expected to master it.
There are four skills in English teaching that the students should master it. The four skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Standard competence of Junior High School states that the seventh grade students in the second semester should be able to express spoken text and short monologue in descriptive and procedure text to interact with surrounding. It means that, the seventh grade students should be able to express meaning in simple short monologue and dialogue used in oral language variety accurately, fluently, and understandably to interact with surrounding.
Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It consists of producing systematic verbal utterance to convey meaning. Speaking also is an important skills to communicate because in speaking students convey ideas, opinion, etc. According to Brown (2001) speaking is one of the important skills in language learning in the classroom. It is used twice as often as listening and the most used skill, it means that students should be good in speaking because speaking is used more than listening.
However in reality, since English is introduced to students, they cannot talk fluently it can be seen when they make small conversations they cannot talk as the teacher want and they get some difficulties to speak English. They feel uneasy and they are afraid to speak with each other to share about their opinion. It can be drawn from their negative attitude toward speaking activity, one of the reason is the teaching method which is used is boring.
In teaching and learning process, the effective and interesting method is one of the ways to motivate students to be involved in the activity. It can make the students feel more comfortable with the materials. As Dewey states, cited in Mooney (2000; p. 15), that enjoyable teaching learning process will occur when students are interested in the materials because the beginner students are interested in many new things such as foreign language. According to Brown (2001 : 100) the characteristic of novice level is the students' ability to communicate using learned material and oral production consists of isolated words.
Unfortunately many teachers still apply traditional method in teaching. For example, teachers make the students keep learning English through teachers' explanation of new words or grammar. In fact, this method is not effective because students will easily forget the words and the material if they learn different topic. Especially for students, those who are seven to twelve years old, this method is uninteresting. Keskil and Cephe note that students who are 10 and 11 years old like game, puzzles and song most, those who are 12 and 13 years old like activities built around dialogues, question-answer activities and matching exercises most. (Harmer, 2001 : 61).
There are many methods that can be used in teaching or learning speaking. But the applied methods which are used need to be not only interesting but also effective in teaching speaking. Clearly, students will not be able to speak foreign language well just by memorizing lists of words, repeating mechanically some useful expressions, and so on. Cameron's (2001) state that speaking is the active use of language to express meanings. To speak in the foreign language in order to share understandings with other, people require attention to precise details of the language. Thus, if students do not understand the spoken language, they cannot learn it effectively.
As Dawson (1975) state that speaking is truly basic skill in language learning. Students need to get themselves involved in the classroom to get more practice in speaking foreign language. For the purpose of getting students involved in the classroom, enjoyable activities are recommended to be used by the teachers to make the students focus on teaching learning process.
The teachers have to use different kinds of teaching approach in order not to make the students feel bored. Klancar (2006 : 53) states that the teacher will get some advantages when they teach student by various types of activities such as reading aloud and describing pictures.
Speaking activity can be modified by using media to help students in organizing their idea, for example by using pictures. Based on the basic competence designed for seventh grade in the junior high school, students are expected to be able to describe something such as objects, things people or procedure. It means that teachers have to help them to be able to describe it. There are many ways to make students more involved in the activity one of them is by using pictures. Besides using pictures and posters teacher can also use the real media such as desks, chairs, and the other things to help them to describe people, things or object. Pictures, as the media, are expected to give explanation and description, without having the students to memorize the text.
Pictures can be a media to stimulate students in describing an object or person in the pictures. Students can acquire the meaning by seeing the things in the pictures without explanation. It also helps them to communicate or explain the events in the picture. As Thornbury (2005; p. 75) explains that the script of conversation can be illustrated in picture form to make it memorized easily. So that teachers can create joyful learning through pictures that can affect students to participate and also motivate them to be active in the class. Providing tools especially pictures could encourage students to focus on the materials. They are interested in the pictures and become actively participate in the class. Furthermore, through pictures, fun learning can be created and speaking activity will not be seen as difficult as students might have thought.
In relation to the teaching and learning, pictures are potential source in the transferring information. In the other words, picture can become a bridge to transfer knowledge from the teacher to the student. As Goodman (2006 : 75) states, that picture can act as a bridge between students who have different learning style. According to Canning-Wilson (2001 : 91) pictures are important since they facilitate students understanding. Furthermore, she explains that for most people, the mental image of what they see has greater impact than auditory input.
Based on the explanation above, this research aimed is to find out the effectiveness of using pictures in teaching speaking English. Thus, the entitled "TEACHING SPEAKING ENGLISH THROUGH PICTURE IN IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY".

B. Research Questions
According to the previous explanations, this research was intended to answer the following questions : 
1. Is the use of Pictures effective in improving students speaking ability ?
2. What are the students' responses of teaching speaking English through pictures ?

C. The Scope of the Research
Based on the aforementioned problems, the scope of this study was to find out the effectiveness of picture in teaching speaking English. The context of the study was limited on teaching speaking English, especially to the seventh grades of SMP X.

D. Aims of the Research
The aims of this research are : 
1. To investigate the effectiveness of picture in teaching speaking English through picture.
2. To analyzed students' responses towards the implementation teaching speaking English through picture.


Posted: 09 Nov 2013 05:43 PM PST



This chapter describes the general issues related to the present study. These include the background of the study, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, hypothesis of the study, definition of the key terms, the purposes and significance of the research. 

A. Background of the study
The recent change of our national curriculum has a great effect on the instructional procedures and material contents in Primary school, Junior High School and Senior High School. Especially in Junior High School, the curriculum change from Competence-Based Curriculum to School-Based Curriculum has given opportunities for teachers to plan and make the curriculum based on the set of competences. Teachers are obliged to be creative and innovative (Karnadi & Ansyar, 2007) in developing the curriculum and portraying lessons in classroom.
Karnadi (2006) stated that the Education Ministerial regulation no. 22, 23 and 24 year 2006, dated May 23, about School-Based Curriculum giving a broad opportunities for schools as well as the teachers to determine and develop the curriculum. The curriculum developed by the school should refer to national standard of education, and operationally should be in line with the standard of content and competence arranged by BSNP (The Board of National Standard of Education). In such a way, school has a full authority to determine and develop the syllabus, curriculum and indicators in order to show the schools' potentials and competitions (Bambang Wasito Adi, The head of Information centre of BSNP). Principally, it is always intended to have teaching and learning process that finally can lead to have better learning outcome.
The goal of teaching English in Junior High School level is to communicate in English at the level of literacy performative competence and literacy functional competence (PERMEN 22 in 2006). The literacy performative competence level leads the students to be able to read, write, listen and speak English in simple symbols. The literacy functional competence level encourages the students to communicate in English orally and written for their daily activity needs.
As such, the way of teaching and learning process of English should be taken more emphasize on communicative approach. This approach gives focus on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structure (Richards, 1986 : 64). It is in line with the function of language that is to communicate opinion, ideas, information, etc. So that language is to communicate meaning as effectively as possible in concrete situation.
Nowadays, communication becomes more and more important in our daily life, because they are indispensable as a means of communication for Indonesia international activities. But it has been a big problem for Indonesian learners of English to develop communicative competence. This is partly because we have few opportunities to use English in a real world and partly because we usually regard English as knowledge instead of a mean of communication. As English is not the main approach for the people to transfer information with each other in Indonesia, it's mainly as the way of finding a good job and passing an examination. As a result, reading skills and linguistic competence are emphasized in school. What is more, Indonesia and English are completely different languages in many aspects, so it's difficult for the students to learn English. Also in Indonesia, there are a few opportunities for students to speak and listen to English; there is no real language environment for students to improve their communicative competence.
Additionally, there are two reasons why we should teach speaking skills in the classroom, they are;
- Motivation
Many students equate being able to speak a language as knowing the language and therefore view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, or as Nunan (1991) wrote, "Success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language." Therefore, if students do not learn how to speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in the language classroom they may soon get de-motivated and lose interest in learning. On the other hand, if the right activities are taught in the right way, speaking in class can be a lot of fun, raising general learner motivation and making the English language classroom a fun and dynamic place to be.
- Speaking is fundamental to human communication.
Just think of all the different conversations we have in one day and compare that with how much written communication we do in one day. Which do we do more of ? In our daily lives most of us speak more than we write, yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Do we think this is a good balance ?
If the goal of our language course is truly to enable our students to communicate in English, then speaking skills should be taught and practiced in the language classroom.
In case of teaching English as a foreign language, the goal of teaching as stated above is accordance with the standard and basic competence in school based curriculum (PERMEN 22 in 2006), especially for the eight-year of junior high school level, which take more emphasize on the students' communicative competence in speaking skill, as in the following that;
- The ability to express meaning in a simple short dialog with other people in transactional and interpersonal conversation. 
- The ability to express meaning in a simple short functional and monolog in descriptive and recount texts for interacting and communicating with other people.
- The ability to express meaning orally in transactional and interpersonal for interacting and communicating with other people.
- The ability to express meaning in a simple short functional and monolog in recount and narrative texts for interacting and communicating with other people.
Additionally, the standard of competence as stated above encourages the students to have the basic competence (PERMEN 22, 2006) as in the following;
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to ask for and give things.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to ask and give opinions (make questions).
Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to invite people, agree and disagree, and talk about past experience.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to express admiration and congratulation ask for and give ideas and ask for information.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to talk about favorite tales, ask for a favor, ask and offer things.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to get information, ask and give opinion, predict and retell the story.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to ask for and give agreement, respond to a statement, talk about one's biography.
- Expressing meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation (socialization) to make a telephone call, leave and take messages, make an appointment, and tell funny experience.
This paradigm shifting has happened in English teaching in Junior High School especially in SMPN X where the goal of teaching is aimed at teaching English for communication. However, the application of teaching in the field is still far from satisfying. For instance; it often can be seen that English teaching still emphasize on language form. It also can be observed that many Junior High School students who have been studying English for more than 3 years are not able to speak English, even though it is in a simple conversation. Their English mark in their final examination (NEM) is considered low and their communicative proficiency is also poor. 
The students' achievement nationally makes parents as well as teachers unhappy. The unsatisfactory results make people then turn more intention to the implementers in the fields. The teachers become the scapegoat of the failure because they directly face the students in class. This phenomenon is concluded that English teaching result is still far from satisfaction. It means that the problem of English teaching still can not be overcome maximally. The implementation of the normative approach underlying the curriculum is considered on the teachers' hand. Teachers as the teaching implementers in the field should be able to understand the curriculum as part of the system, since it should be understood as guideline that give direction towards the target decided. Their understanding will very much determine their preparation and their actual implementation in class. But the case is not like what it has been expected. Teachers as the spearhead are not well prepared. They are predicted of not having enough knowledge or experience about the approach.
The purpose of English teaching in Indonesia is very often limited to the four language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). And all the classroom activities are designed around the four language skills. However this is not necessarily the case. Many teachers and learners get accustomed to traditional teaching methodology and neglect the nature of language and language teaching. To avoid such misunderstanding the thesis insists that the aim of English teaching is to develop the learners' communicative competence.
In Indonesia, some existing problems, of which dumb English and low efficiency are most evident. Generally, the learners have spent at least three years or so studying English before entering senior high school. During such long learning span too much emphasis has been put on rote learning and accumulation of English knowledge, such as the mastery of usage words and grammatical rules. Many learners with many years experience in English learning still have considerable difficulty coping with English in its normal oral communicative use. Therefore, it is of great significance and urgency to further discuss the objective of language teaching and the approach in English language teaching is most self-evident. The learners are required to develop the comprehensive ability to communicate orally in English. In the process of improving the comprehensive proficiency the teaching should focus on the learners' proficiency instead of the presentation of abstract linguistic forms.
The objective of the English teaching is to develop the learners' English communicative competence likewise. Viewing English as a kind of meaning potential and a functional system, its learning should be the realization of English behavior potential. English teaching will focus on how to use English grammatically and appropriately. In a word, our English teaching will concentrate on the knowledge and ability to use. In addition to the ability to produce and understand grammatical utterances the learners are to develop the ability to know when to select a particular grammatical sequence that should be appropriate to the context, both linguistic and situational.
The common problems encountered by teachers with the teaching of English, especially teaching of speaking skills in junior high school can be seen in the following that; 
1. Students won't talk or say anything
One way to tackle this problem is to find the root of the problem and start from there. A reason for student silence may simply be that the class activities are boring or are pitched at the wrong level. Very often our interesting communicative speaking activities are not quite as interesting or as communicative as we think they are and all the students are really required to do is answer 'yes' or 'no' which they do quickly and then just sit in silence or worse talking noisily in their L1.
2. When students work in pairs or groups they just end up chatting in their own language.
This problem is mostly happen when the activity or the task is not interesting to students. If students do not have something to say or do, or don't feel the need to speak, we can be sure it won't be long before they are chatting away in their L1.
3. Passive class
A common problem for EFL teachers is dealing with a passive class, where students are unresponsive and avoid interaction with the teacher. This is especially true when a teacher seeks interaction in a teacher-class dialog, such as asking questions to the class as a whole, expecting at least one student to respond. This can be a frustrating experience for both parties. Obviously, there will be times when no student can answer a teacher's question, but often students do not answer even if they understand the question, know the answer, and are able to produce the answer. Furthermore, students can often be very reluctant to give feedback or ask the teacher a question in front of the class.
This condition interests the researcher to investigate the effectiveness of CLT to EFL teaching in order to overcome those problems, to help students to learn English more effectively and efficiently, especially in improving students' speaking ability.

B. Limitation of the Problem
It has been previously stated in the background that students with many years experience in English learning still have considerable difficulty coping with English in its normal oral communicative use. In the other hand, students who have been studying English for more than 3 years are not able to speak English, even though it is in a simple conversation. Their English mark in their final examination (NEM) is considered low and their communicative proficiency is also poor.
Concerning the outcome that has not made us happy yet, it is necessary to take a look at the communicative language teaching approach to the teaching of English as a foreign language. Through this study the researcher will investigate the effectiveness of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in the English Foreign Language (EFL) classroom, especially in improving students' speaking ability in SMPN X.

C. Formulation of the Problem
The problem that will be observed in this research is;
1. Is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach effective in improving students' speaking ability ?
2. Is there any significant difference between the speaking ability of the respondents who are trained on applying CLT with those who are not ?

D. Hypothesis of the Study
The researcher sets the hypothesis as follows that students who are taught using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach get higher speaking ability than those who are taught using the conventional method.

E. Definition of the Key Terms
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. In other words, Communicative language teaching (CLT) is the way of teaching language that takes more emphasize on communicative approach (Wilkins, 1980s). CLT refers to the process of learning which makes use of real-life situation that necessitate communication (Ann Galloway, center for applied linguistics). The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audio-lingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics.
Communicative language teaching (CLT) refers to both processes and goals in classroom learning. The central theoretical concept in communicative language teaching is ''communicative competence,''. Competence is defined in terms of the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning (Sauvignon, 1971). Sauvignon (1971) used the term ''communicative competence'' to characterize the ability of classroom language learners to interact with other speakers, to make meaning, as distinct from their ability to recite dialogues or perform on discrete-point tests of grammatical knowledge.
Approach, according to Anthony as quoted by Richards (1986) is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language and learning. Following Richards (1986), states that approach is theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. Additionally, approach refers to the beliefs and theories about language, language learning and teaching that underlie a method. While speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking.

F. The Purpose of the Research
There are two purposes of the research : 
1. To investigate whether CLT is effective in improving students' speaking ability.
2. To find out the improvement of students' speaking ability after being trained compared to those who are not trained.

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